The effectiveness of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in today's buildings, whether residential, industrial or for service activities, is of decisive importance for ensuring the comfort of living and working spaces.
Production companies often have continuously running machinery and equipment generating noise and vibrations, which, if beyond certain tolerance thresholds, require isolation in order to protect the health of the workers (Legislative Decree 81/2008).
Equipment for working sheet metal (cutting, forging, moulding and bending), such as presses, hammers, shears and punching machines, can be significant sources of shocks and vibrations, which are transmitted through the base of the machine to the entire area in which they are installed.
The defence sector requires systems installed on land, air and sea transport vehicles to meet a variety of conditions, including the capacity to operate under quite significant vibratory and impulse stress, as well as other application or regulatory features (MIL-STD-810, MIL-S-901D, MIL-STD-167).
The mining and oil industries use machinery and equipment that can be significant sources of noise and vibration, for example, in operations involving drilling or the pumping of extracted materials.
In the power generation sector, we can consider both independent internal combustion engines as well as generators that combine an engine and an alternator for producing electricity.
All rotating machines produce vibrations due to the eccentricity, imbalance and misalignment of rotating parts, due to possible contact and friction between parts and, in some cases, to thermal and fluid-dynamic phenomena inside the machine.
Electronic devices, instruments and systems installed on vehicles for both road and rail transport are subject to stresses transmitted by the unevenness of the ground or the rail joints.
Throughout their working lives, electronic parts used in aeroplanes, rockets and satellites are subject to the vibrations present in the structure of the vehicle in which they are installed.
Electrical switchboards usually do not contain significant sources of vibration, with the possible exception of cooling fans. However, they often need to be protected from vibrations present in the environment in which they are installed.
Playing a musical instrument is an extremely pleasant pastime, but it should not disturb the peace of any neighbours who may not wish to listen to the instrument owner's practice sessions.
The very fact that ships are built primarily from metallic materials means that particular care needs to be taken to prevent sources of vibration on board (motors, pumps and other equipment) from transmitting excessive energy to the structures, where it would then be easily propagated, causing unacceptable vibration and noise levels for the well-being of the passengers and crew.